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On March 24, 1913, the Simplified Spelling Board issued a fourth 
list of recommended spellings. A part of the circular is reproduced 
herewith. Those who wish further information may address 1 Madison 
Ave., New York City. All the publications of the Board except the 
periodical Bulletin are free. 

The Simplified Spelling Board, with the approval of its Advisory Council, 
now recommends the additional simplifications of spelling containd in the 
folloing Fourth List. 

The First List (the Three Hundred Words), publisht in 1006 (latest ed. 
1007, Circular No. 1 5), was not a list of newly simplified forms, but a selection 
of simpler forms alredy in good use — namely, in three hundred out of more 
than three thousand words at that time commonly speld in two or more ways. 
It was, in the greater part, a selection of the spellings preferd and used by the 
three principal American dictionaries, and alredy in majority use thruout 
the United States. 

The Second List, publisht on January 29, 1908 (Circular No. 18), con- 
taind a considerable number of simplified spellings that might be cald 'inno- 
vations.' But the simplified forms it containd wer strictly in accord with the 
existing rules and analogies of English spelling, and wer for the most part 
restorations of simplifications formerly in high literary use. No new rule or 
analogy, and therefore, no real innovation, was introduced. 

The wide acceptance of the Three Hundred Words and of the Second List 
made it desirable to publish a more extensiv list, including classes of words 
in which regulation was much demanded and could not be postponed. Accord- 
ingly the Board, with the approval of the Advisory Council, publisht the Third 
List, January 25, 1909 (Circular No. 22). The three lists wer then put together 
in one Alfabetic List, and publisht March 6, 1909 (Circular No. 23). 

These lists hav been circulated in several hundred thousand copies, and hav 
been in effect a supplementary spelling-book or orthografic dictionary for more 
than one hundred thousand persons. They hav also been used by many 
business firms and corporations, who hav instructed or permitted their clerks 
to use these simplified forms, or some of them, in their correspondence. 

After publishing the Third List, the Board thought it would be wel to 
withhold further recommendations until the practis of simplified spelling 
should spred more widely, and until the agitation in Great Britain and Canada 
should gain strength. Meantime, the Executiv Committee, in cooperation 
with the members of the Board and the Advisory Council, undertook the 
formation of a provisional Vocabulary of Simplified Spellings, intended to 



include all the ordinary words of the English language that admit any simpli- 
fication of spelling, according to the existing rules and analogies, and without 
increasing the present alfabet. The Vocabulary was formd; it has been 
repeatedly revised; and it is in condition to be publisht, when it shal appear 
that the supporters of the general cause ar redy to accept it. 

In preparation for the future it has appeard desirable to publish now a 
Fourth List of simplifications, which shal remove many minor irregularities 
and thus clear the ground for the work that remains to be done. 

When the simplified forms of this Fourth List ar printed in one alfabetic 
order with the preceding alfabetic List (No. 23), the combined list wil then 
form an important part of the proposed Vocabulary of Simplified Spellings, 
and wil afford a large basis of agreement and adjustment among the bodies 
now engaged in the promotion of the general cause. 

It should be distinctly understood that the proposed Vocabulary of Simpli- 
fied Spellings can not present a complete and final rationalization of English 
spelling. Before that can be done, there must be a definit decision upon the 
alfabetic question. Meanwhile, however, much can be done with the alfabet 
as it is, with the rules and analogies as they ar. We can define the limits of 
'simplified spelling,' not for all time, but for the immediate future. We hav 
drawn the minimum limits. By this Fourth List we extend the limits, not 
very far, but safely and surely. Some striking changes ar made; but, for the 
most part, they ar changes that most persons hav recognized as at least theo- 
retically desirable. The most determind opponents of simplified spelling 
hav to admit that k is silent in knack, knock, and knot; that the w is silent in 
wrath, wreath, and wrong; that the final d is pronounst t in advanced, danced, 
convinced, etc.; and that the gh is pronounst/in rough, tough, cough, trough, etc. 
That is to say, the opponents of improved spelling admit the bad conditions; 
they simply object to the improvement of those conditions. 

In considering these new spellings, do not be too much influenst by the 'od' 
appearance of the word. Any change must look od at first. Consider, rather 
whether the change would bring a real gain, if the public should accept it. 
Consider whether the change is in the right direction — the direction of simpli- 
city, economy, regularity, reason. 

Consider also whether you hav had much personal experience of simplified 
spelling upon which to base a judgment. Those persons who hav actually 
used, in their publications, or in the circulars and catalogs of the institutions 
which they control, all the simplified forms recommended by the Board, hav 
not reported any case of failure, or any serius opposition. Ar you sure that you 
would be opposed ? Ar you sure that you would be defeated ? They who try 
ar apt to win. 

In publishing this Fourth List, the Simplified Spelling Board and its 
Advisory Council and the many thousand professors, teachers, superintendents, 
clergymen, lawyers, fysicians, and other supporters for whom they speak, 
declare their desire to bring about an improvement in English spelling, in this 


way, in these words, here and now. Many of these influential persons wil be 
using these new spellings the rest of their lives. Some of them hav been 
using these spellings for years. And allowing for the necessary, and indeed 
desirable, proportion of criticism and dout which always accompanies new 
proposals, we may say that this great body of educated men and women, no 
matter in what degree they use the simplified spellings themselvs, wil hereafter 
advise teachers to teach and children to use these new spellings. 

It matters not that the use of new spellings wil be, in many cases, inter- 
mittent and variable. It is so in the application of all new ideas. It is no 
more important that any one shal be unvarying in his use of new spellings than 
in his use of old spellings. In a period of new action, uniformity is not to be 
expected or desired. Reform is not routine; and even in the routine of daily 
life it is variation that givs interest and life to the routine. 

It wil be seen that some of these proposals, like previus proposals, involv a 
simplification of only a part of a word, as of a suffix at the end of many hundred 
words which may contain in the middle varius irrational digrafs or anomalus 
combinations of letters that can not, in the present state of opinion, be alterd 
with any prospect of success. 

To keep within limits, the rules and comments ar brief, and the larger 
classes of words ar represented only by caracteristic examples. Let it be 
understood that the Board is prepared to state all the reasons, historic, filologic, 
and educational, for each rule, to giv ful lists of the words affected, and to 
cite authority for all the statements of fact. Any inquirer may get information 
by asking for it. 

If no rule is found referring to a particular clas of words, it wil be under- 
stood that words of this clas hav been included in the rules of simplification 
heretofore adopted by the Board and ar enterd in the combined Alfabetic List 
(March, 1909), or else hav not yet been simplified. The classes not yet acted 
upon constitute the problems of the future. But in the mean time certain 
undouted simplifications which do not fall under the general rules, but which 
hav been approved by the Board in the course of discussion, may be used with- 
out hesitation. Such ar: Anser, frend, morgage, yoman, for answer, friend, 
mortgage, yeoman. Indeed, no discreet frend of progress need hesitate now 
to use other simplifications that ar obviously in accord with the general policy 
of the Board. 

All the rules for simplification herein or heretofore recommended by the 
Board ar applied in this circular wherever the words affected occur. It wil be 
seen that the rules, even when thus fully applied, do not greatly alter the 
appearance of the page. Let the reader judge whether these paragrafs cause 
for him any difficulty. 

One Hundred Specimen Words in Simplified Spelling 

This List of One Hundred Specimen Words in Simplified Spelling is 
printed by the Simplified Spelling Board for the use of those persons who wish 
to hav at hand a short list of typical simplified forms. 








































































































The interests of the National Council of Teachers of English continue 
to deepen and multiply, as evidenced by the organization of new com- 
mittees and the extension of the work of those already established. 
Walter Barnes, assistant principal and teacher of English in the normal 
school at Glenville, W.Va., has undertaken to direct the work of a com- 
mittee on English in the country schools. His articles on this topic have 
been running for some months in several of the state educational journals 
and must be exceedingly suggestive. 

A committee on plays for schools and colleges is in process of organi- 
zation. There is a rapidly growing demand for information as to the use 
of acting plays, the writing of plays, the study of recent plays, etc., both 
in colleges and in schools. It will be the mission of this committee to 
gather up and make available, through the English Journal, the experi- 
ence of teachers in different parts of the country. The co-operation of 


other organizations and of playwrights, actors, and critics will be sought. 
Suggestions for the committee may be addressed to the English 

A report on the preparation of teachers of English will be compiled by 
the committee of which Franklin T. Baker, of Teachers College, 
Columbia University, is chairman. Professor Baker's article in this num- 
ber of the Journal, which is a resume of his address before the Council at 
the recent Philadelphia meeting, will indicate some of the questions with 
which the committee has to deal. In this connection it should be 
announced that the New England Association of Teachers of English has 
appointed a committee to report on this same topic; also that the 
Committee on the Preparation of College Teachers of English which was 
authorized by the Modern Language Association has been accepted by 
the National Council and will have the co-operation of that body. The 
membership of this committee has been completed by the addition of 
John M. Clapp, professor of English in Lake Forest College, Ashley 
H. Thorndike, executive secretary of the department of English in 
Columbia University, and John L. Lowes, head of the department of 
English in Washington University, St. Louis. 

The Joint Committee on an English Syllabus has been divided into 
subcommittees for the purpose of developing the details of the different 
parts of the English course. The chairmen of these subcommittees are 
as follows: on Oral English, E. W. Smith, Hamilton, N.Y.; on Composi- 
tion Projects in Grades Seven to Nine, C. W. Evans, East Orange, N.J.; 
on Composition Projects in Grades Ten to Twelve, Mae McKitrick, 
Cleveland, Ohio; on Choice of Literature for Grades Seven to Nine, 
R. T. Congdon, Albany, N.Y.; on Choice of Literature for Grades 
Ten to Twelve, C. S. Thomas, Newtonville, Mass.; on Attainment at the 
End of the Sixth Grade, E. T. Reed, Corvallis, Ore. A preliminary 
report, setting forth the general plan of the committee and the problems 
which it is attempting to work out, will be made to the English Round 
Table of the National Education Association at Salt Lake City in 


The Committee on the Labor and Cost of Composition Teaching has 
been enlarged and the scope of its work extended so as to include elemen- 
tary schools. A final report with regard to high schools has recently 
been published and may be obtained for six cents postpaid of the Depart- 
ment of Journalism Press, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. This 
is a significant document and should be placed in the hands of school 
officials everywhere. The concluding paragraphs are in part as follows: 


First, and most conclusively established, the initial step toward increasing 
the efficiency of English composition teaching, the one thing that is essential in 
all cases, whatever else may prove to be necessary, is to reduce the average 
number of pupils assigned to English composition teachers in all schools to a 
proper laboratory standard. The reason why this reduction is the initial step 
toward higher efficiency, and in all cases the essential step, is because, no matter 
how favorable other conditions may be, without this reduction high efficiency 
is a physical impossibility. 

Second, the cost of taking this step will not be prohibitive; it will merely 
give English composition, adjudged the most important of all laboratory sub- 
jects, its proper place among such subjects in the school budget, as any scientific 
system of standardization must do. Now it stands at the very bottom, worst 
paid and worst equipped of all, if not the last considered, relegated to the com- 
pany of textbook subjects and without financial honor even among them. Full 
recognition will not make it the most expensive subject, because it requires, not 
elaborate buildings and apparatus, but merely an adequate supply of books and 
teachers, with simple illustrative material. 

Third, after this step is taken, others may then prove to be necessary in 
some cases: such as (a) the standardizing of the preparation and the skill of 
English teachers; (6) the determining of the relative efficiency of various 
methods under varying conditions, as for instance of oral and written training; 
(c) the establishing of the definite and required co-operation of other teachers 
with English teachers; and (d) the co-ordinating of the English work of all 
schools from the lowest to the highest. But with the present average assign- 
ment of pupils, it is established that the best teacher using the best methods 
cannot secure high efficiency, except by overwork with its inevitable results, 
and even thus for a limited period only. It may for emphasis be repeated that 
the thing that chiefly matters in the teaching of English composition is not the 
number or the size of individual classes, but as in any other laboratory subject, 
the total number of students assigned to a teacher; though incidentally within 
certain limits smaller classes are preferable to larger ones, even for efficient 

In the progress of the investigation, further details appear to be sanctioned 
by the opinions of a majority of teachers reporting. For instance, in secondary 
schools English schedule time should be about equally divided between litera- 
ture and composition, both subjects preferably taught by the same teacher to 
the same pupils. A prevailing practice is to give composition two days a week 
and literature three; but exceptions are numerous. Laboratory practice, it is 
said, should be about equally divided between oral and written work; not 
necessarily both in the same week, but with a certain weekly average minimum 
of written work. Composition sections should not exceed 20 students each, 
and a smaller number is preferable, especially in oral training. Ample time 
should be provided for private personal conference between instructor and 
pupils, for both oral and written work, all counted and paid for as teaching time, 


thus greatly lessening the necessity and labor of theme correcting, and increas- 
ing efficiency by a ratio greatly exceeding the necessary increase in cost. 

Without enumerating other topics which necessarily will be fully and 
authoritatively covered in the forthcoming report of the National Education 
Association committee, it will be noted that even the few points stated raise 
further questions of the utmost importance, to which answers cannot be found 
too soon. Perhaps the most pressing of these is the question as to the relative 
time necessary in oral and written training respectively to obtain fairly equiva- 
lant results in each. Each serves its own ends, and neither can be replaced by 
the other, but each aids the other in certain respects. This question has a 
most important bearing upon the problems of labor and cost discussed in this 
report. So far as it can be answered by a consensus of opinion, the answer is 
almost unanimous that oral training takes more time, while of course greatly 
lessening the burden of theme correction. English teachers' associations in two 
states are now making a special study of this problem; in one instance making 
a comparative study of the conditions as they are found, and in the other con- 
ducting a carefully organized experimental test. A fairly definite and conclu- 
sive answer may therefore be expected within a reasonable time. 

Another question that must sometime be answered, and the sooner the 
better, is that relating to the feasibility of requiring the co-operation in all 
schools of all other teachers with the teachers of English, and the nature of the 
results that maybe expected. It seems plausible if not indeed probable that after 
establishing ideal conditions of efficiency in the English classroom, the influence 
of other classes, the playground, the street, and the home, may after all by mere 
preponderance of time largely nullify the English teacher's work. While it is 
true that they cannot under improved conditions nullify it in the same measure 
that they now do, and that it may be possible to secure high efficiency in spite 
of them, it is also true that the facts should be ascertained and passed upon. 
An organized effort to do so has not yet been made, though there have been a 
few individual experiments. Those in which co-operation was occasional and 
purely voluntary seem invariably to have failed; and so have those in which the 
English of other classes was passed on and graded by the English teacher; 
because in neither have other teachers assumed real responsibility. But in one 
experiment now in progress in a secondary school, it is made a part of the 
regular duty of all other teachers to supervise the English of their classes accord- 
ing to specific and simple instructions, whatever the subject may be, and to 
report grades on English to the English department, to be taken into account 
in the final English estimate. This experiment promises to be successful; it 
has been in operation long enough to demonstrate that it produces very appar- 
ent good results in English without increasing expense in other departments. 

The same school has found an even more marked improvement in results to 
follow from reducing the total number of students assigned to an English teacher 
in accordance with the data published by this committee. This number varies 
from 60 to 50; each teacher averages not more than 17 recitations weekly, and 


spends 12 to 15 hours weekly in private conference with pupils and 5 hours in 
theme-reading. The proportion of oral to written exercises is 5 to 1 ; written 
exercises average 300 words a week for each pupil, and delivery of oral exercises 
requires 10 or 15 minutes a week from each pupil. To introduce the system 
increased the previous cost of teaching not above 25 per cent, while the number 
of failures compared with that of neighboring schools in the same period has 
been reduced one-half. This in general terms is to say that with regard to one 
single point an increase of not to exceed 25 per cent in expense has led to an 
increase of 100 per cent in efficiency. 1 

The National Speech Arts Association will hold its annual convention 
in Washington, D.C., during the week beginning Monday, June 30, 1913. 
The program includes recitals by Mrs. Hannibal A. Williams, of Cam- 
bridge, N.Y., Henry G. Hawn, of New York City, Emma L. Ostrander, 
of Forest Glen, Md., Grace E. Makepeace, of Cleveland, Ohio, Mrs. 
Bertha Eldridge, of Rochester, N.Y., Robert W. Van Kirk, of West 
Newton, Mass., Margaret Stahl, of Fremont, Ohio, Henry G. Houghton, 
of Tiffin, Ohio, Nancy Barbee, of Louisville, Ky., and Edith F. Kunz, of 
New Brighton, N.Y. 

The following papers and addresses are announced: "The Alleged 
Passing of the Orator," Rev. George E. Reed, of Wilmington, Del.; 
"The Spoken Word in the Drama," Lemuel B. C. Josephs, New York 
City; "Responsibility and Opportunity," R. E. P. Kline, Chicago; 
"A New Field of Labor for the Speech Artist," Katherine Eggleston, 
New York City; "A Lesson from Carlyle," John P. Silvernail, Rochester, 
N.Y.; "A Plea for Specially Trained Supervisors of Oral English in 
Public Schools," Laura E. Aldrich, Cincinnati, Ohio; "The Lyric Art," 
Mrs. Glenna S. Tinnin, Washington, D.C.; "The Spoken Word in the 
Pulpit," J. Woodman Babbit, Princeton, N.J.; "The Place of Speech 
Training in General Education," Frederick B. Robinson, New York City; 
"The Relation of Expression in the Normal School to Reading in the 
Grades," Amelia F. Lucas, Milwaukee, Wis.; "Materials for Speech 

1 The school referred to, here named by permission, is the J. Sterling Morton High 
School of Cicero, 111., Principal H. V. Church. The following statement regarding its 
English work is quoted from the letter of a recent visitor: "I never saw the like before 
in any school. No doubt a similar condition might be found in some high grade private 
schools, but this is a public high school, in a community largely inhabited by foreigners, 

a school in which few of the pupils come from wealthy families It is the system, 

beyond all question, which has produced the results." In introducing the "system" 
Mr. Church has had the effective support and approval of all his teachers of other 
subjects as well as of English. See report in English Journal for March, 1913, p. 185. 


Training in Public Schools," Charles A. Dawson, Syracuse, N.Y.; "The 
Common Ground of the English and Dramatic Departments," Jane 
Herendeen, New York City; "The Psychology of Speech," G. Hudson- 
Maknew, Philadelphia, Pa.; "Standardization in the Speech Arts 
Profession," Caroline B. Phelps, Raleigh, N.C.; "How Can We Make 
Universal the Teaching of the Fundamental Principles of Vocal Expres- 
sion?" Mary A. Blood, Chicago; "The Relation of Music to Public 
Speaking," Leonard B. McWhord, Madison, N.J.; "Courses in the 
Literature of Oratory," C. D. Hardy, Evanston, 111. The topics of the 
papers by Edwin D. Shurter, of Austin, Tex., and J. L. Lardner, of 
Evanston, 111., are to be supplied. 

The Speech Arts Association is a society of long standing and estab- 
lished reputation. It was organized in 1892 and has held conventions in 
most of the principal cities of the country. Its purposes are both educa- 
tional and social; the mornings are devoted to discussion, the afternoons 
to sightseeing and amusements, the evenings to recitals. The officers 
include Livingston Barbour, of Rutgers College, president, Grace E. 
Makepeace, Cleveland, Ohio, secretary, Mrs. George Frankel, Portland, 
Ore., treasurer, and John P. Silvernail, Rochester, N.Y., chairman of the 
Board of Directors. 

The summer meeting of the National Education Association will be 
held in Salt Lake City, Utah, July 5-11. Low rates have been granted 
by the railroads, and side trips are well provided for. Teachers of 
English will be interested in the programs of the Secondary Department 
and the English Round Table as well as in that of the National Council, 
of which one or more sessions will be held. Some of the topics to be 
discussed are "The Proposed National Syllabus," "A Working Plan of 
Co-operation in Teaching English," "Developing a Feeling of Respon- 
sibility," "The Use of Contemporary Writing." 

The publishing board of the American Library Association has 
decided to issue the A.L.A. Book List from the Chicago office, beginning 
with September. A corps of readers is in process of organizing, and the 
value of the publication will be greater, if possible, than heretofore. It 
is said to be the purchasing guide of thousands of librarians. 

The office of the national Commissioner of Education is rendering an 
important service to the teachers of the country by publishing monthly, 


in addition to numerous special bulletins embodying reports and expert 
studies, a Monthly Record of Current Educational Publications. The 
Record is compiled and annotated by the Library Division, under the 
direction of John D. Wolcott. 

The Interstate Schoolman has been combined with the Kansas School 
Magazine. The latter is one of the best of the general educational 
periodicals and should be still better under the new arrangement. 
Edgar F. Riley is editor and J. H. Glotfelter, business manager. 

The bulletins, or leaflets, issued by some of the state associations of 
English teachers are often worthy of a wider circulation than they receive. 
The Illinois Bulletin for April is devoted to an excellent statement of the 
"Problems of the High-School Play" by T. H. Guild, of the University of 
Illinois. The New England Leaflet for May presents a very suggestive 
article on "Creating Responsibility" by Mabel Coolidge, of the Newton 
High School, Newtonville, Mass. 


[Mention under this head does not preclude review elsewhere.] 

Patience, a West Midland Poem of the Fourteenth Century. Edited with Intro- 
duction, Bibliography, Notes, and Glossary by Hartley Bateson. New 
York: Longmans, 1 913. Pp. 150. $1.50. 

The Early Life of George Eliot. By Mary H. Deakin. With an Introductory 
Note by C. H. Herford. New York: Longmans, 1913. Pp. 188. 
This and the preceding are Nos. Ill and IV of the "English Series" issued by the 

University of Manchester. 

Songs and Ballads of Greater Britain. Compiled by E. A. Helps. New York: 

E. P. Dutton, 1913. Pp. 360. $1. 50. 

The poems in this volume are by authors in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, 
South Africa, East and West India, Jamaica, and Ceylon. The work presents a 
great variety of interests but is permeated with the spirit of British imperialism. 
The author has performed a service in making so many scattered productions easily 

How to Write an Essay. By W. T. Webb. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1013. 

Pp. 195. $0. 50. 

Intended as a guide for those preparing to take examinations. A brief outline of 
theory is followed by a series of sample outlines and essays built upon them.